120 Quotation from Ps 24:1 left out from 1 Corinthians 10:28.
I always love it when authors of the New Testament quote from the Old Testament. Therefore I was very concerned when I found that the precious word “The earth is the Lord’s and everything in it.” is missing in most modern versions of the Bible. Why would they omit this quotation from Psalm 24:28?
Our first criterion is the external information derived from the manuscripts to our disposal.
1 Corinthians 10:28
|Source:||Greek:||Translations:||Church Fathers:||Greek:||Translations:||Church Fathers:|
|301-400||Sinaiticus, Vaticanus||Vulgate, Bohairic||Ambrosiaster||Gothic||Ephraem|
|401-500||Alexandrinus, Ephraemi, Bezae||Old Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic||Augustine||Chrysostom*, Euthalius, Theodoret|
|701-800||1 Old Latin||John-Damascus||Atous- Laurae|
|801-900||Audiensis, Boernerianus, Porphyrianus, Minuscule 33||6 Old Latin||Mosquensis, Angelicus||Photius|
|901-1600||11 Minuscules||9 Minuscules, Lectionary||Ps-Oekumenius, Theophylact|
Up to the year 800 A.D. we have six Greek manuscripts without the quotation from Psalm 24 in this place, while only one does include it here. Eight antique translations versus only two, while the Church Fathers are equal with four each. According to the manuscript evidence 1 Corinthians ten verse twenty eight originally had to be with this quotation.
If we can compile a possible answer to how this variation could have originated, it might be possible to discern which would most likely be the original and which the variation.
Only three verses earlier an almost exact sentence is found ending on the same words.
1Co 10:25 – 28: Eat anything sold in the meat market without raising questions of conscience,
for, “The earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it.”
If some unbeliever invites you to a meal and you want to go, eat whatever is put before you without raising questions of conscience.
But if anyone says to you, “This has been offered in sacrifice,” then do not eat it, both for the sake of the man who told you and for conscience’ sake …”
It is almost certain that this variation could have originated due to dittography, where the jumps back to a previous same word, and the following words were repeated. That could explain why the version with these words repeated are only found in late Greek manuscripts.
Next we look at the compilation of the pericope to establish whether Paul would indeed have inserted this quotation a second time.
First Paul says one should not embarrass the butcher, for the sake of conscience, for God created all things good. Any meat is edible. Then follows the quotation from Psalm 24:1, for the earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it. There it makes perfect sense.
Then Paul says that one should not embarrass one’s host at a meal, for the sake of conscience.
But then Paul handles the host who specific announces that the meet had been consecrated to an idol. Paul’s advice is not to eat such, “for the sake of conscience” To quote Psalm 24:1 at this point makes no sense – it rather weakens the reasoning: ”do not eat, for the earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it.” Here it makes no sense at all!
With the quotation at this place, it also interrupts Paul’s reasoning directly following; that it is about the conscience of yourself, and not that of the host.
The context of these verses makes it clear that the original most probably had been with out this quotation at this point. It does not fit.
With all three criteria, the manuscript evidence; the possible explanation of the origin of the quotation as dittography; as well as the interruption it makes in Paul’s reasoning, it is almost certain that the original autograph had the quotation from Psalm 24:1 only once after verse 25.
Unfortunately the manuscript Desiderius Erasmus used in compiling the first printed edition of the New Testament, had this quotation repeated at this point. Hence it became part of the King James Version.
When modern versions are without the quotation at this point, they are not taking from the Bible, but rectify the whole pericope to the original where thia quotation has its full meaning and impact.
Remarks are welcome at the bottom of this page, or via e-mail to me at firstname.lastname@example.org